Mapping mycological ignorance – checklists and diversity patterns of fungi known for West Africa

Scientific details about biodiversity distribution is indispensable for nature conservation and sustainable administration of pure assets. For a number of teams of animals and crops, such knowledge can be found, however for fungi, particularly in tropical areas like West Africa, they’re principally lacking. Here, info for West African nations about species diversity of fungi and fungus-like organisms (different organisms historically studied by mycologists) is compiled from literature and analysed in its historic context for the primary time. More than 16,000 data of fungi representing 4843 species and infraspecific taxa have been present in 860 publications regarding West Africa.

Records from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) database (2395 species), and that of the previous International Mycological Institute fungal reference assortment (IMI) (2526 species) have been additionally thought-about. The compilation based mostly on literature is extra complete than the GBIF and IMI knowledge, though they embrace 914 and 679 species names, respectively, which aren’t current within the guidelines based mostly on literature. According to knowledge out there in literature, data on fungal richness ranges from 19 species (Guinea Bissau) to 1595 (Sierra Leone).

In estimating present species diversity, richness estimators and the Hawksworth 6:1 fungus to plant species ratio have been used. Based on the Hawksworth ratio, known fungal diversity in West Africa represents 11.4% of the anticipated diversity. For six West African nations, nevertheless, known fungal species diversity is lower than 2%. Incomplete data of fungal diversity can also be evident by species accumulation curves not reaching saturation, by 45.3% of the fungal species within the guidelines being cited solely as soon as for West Africa, and by 66.5% of the fungal species within the guidelines reported solely for a single nation.

The documentation of completely different systematic teams of fungi could be very heterogeneous as a result of traditionally investigations have been sporadic. Recent opportunistic sampling actions in Benin confirmed that it’s not troublesome to seek out specimens representing new nation data. Investigation of fungi in West Africa began simply over two centuries in the past and it’s nonetheless in an early pioneer part. To promote correct exploration, the current guidelines is offered as a device to facilitate fungal identification on this area and to help conceptualisation and justification of future analysis tasks. Documentation of fungal diversity is urgently wanted as a result of pure habitats are being misplaced on a big scale by altered land use and local weather change.

Mass Spectrometry: A Rosetta Stone to Learn How Fungi Interact and Talk

Fungi are a extremely various group of heterotrophic organisms that play an vital function in various ecological interactions, many of that are chemically mediated. Fungi have a really versatile metabolism, which permits them to synthesize a big quantity of nonetheless little-known chemical compounds, comparable to soluble compounds which might be secreted into the medium and unstable compounds which might be chemical mediators over brief and lengthy distances. Mass spectrometry (MS) is at the moment taking part in a dominant function in mycological research, primarily as a consequence of its inherent sensitivity and fast identification capabilities of completely different metabolites.

Furthermore, MS has additionally been used as a dependable and correct device for fungi identification (i.e., biotyping). Here, we introduce the readers about fungal specialised metabolites, their function in ecological interactions and present an outline on the MS-based mostly strategies utilized in fungal research. We significantly current the significance of sampling strategies, methods to scale back false-optimistic identification and new MS-based mostly analytical methods that can be utilized in mycological research, additional increasing the use of MS in broader functions.

Therefore, we foresee a vibrant future for mass spectrometry-based mostly analysis within the discipline of mycology. The first assembly of the CIFAR Fungal Kingdom: Threats & Opportunities analysis program noticed the congregation of consultants on fungal biology to handle essentially the most urgent threats fungi pose to world well being, agriculture, and biodiversity. This report covers the analysis mentioned in the course of the assembly and the developments made towards mitigating the devastating affect of fungi on crops, animals, and people.

Mapping mycological ignorance - checklists and diversity patterns of fungi known for West Africa

Anti-Candida Activity of Curcumin: A Review

Curcumin is one of the vital pure compounds that’s extracted from turmeric. This compound and its derivatives have quite a few organic properties, together with antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and therapeutic results. Extensive analysis in numerous fields has been carried out on turmeric as it’s broadly used as a meals additive. The important antifungal exercise is one of the main results of curcumin. In this paper, latest research on the consequences of completely different varieties of curcumin drug on the candidiasis have been systematically examined and mentioned.

The knowledge on this research have been extracted from the articles and reviews revealed within the Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus databases. After the preliminary investigation, related reviews have been chosen and labeled based mostly on the included formulation and function of the research. After a scientific dialogue of the info, it was discovered that the use of medicinal varieties based mostly on nanoparticles can improve the absorption and goal the managed launch of curcumin with a simpler function in comparison with different formulations.

KinaseSTAR JNK Activity Assay Kit

K2079-40 40 assays
EUR 738

JNK Assay Kit

55R-1407 40 assays
EUR 868
Description: Assay Kit for detection of JNK in the research laboratory

JNK Assay Kit

55R-1408 40 assays
EUR 979
Description: Assay Kit for detection of JNK in the research laboratory

JNK Activity Screening Kit, KinaseSTAR

K430-40
EUR 593

KinaseSTAR JNK Activity Screening Kit

K2078-40 40 assays
EUR 641

Trypsin Activity Assay Kit

3043 1 kit
EUR 483.55
Description: Trypsin Activity Assay Kit

Urease Activity Assay Kit

55R-2261 100 assays
EUR 689
Description: Assay kit to measure Urease activity

Protease Activity Assay Kit

AR4011-unit unit
EUR 340

MAT Activity Assay Kit

abx098901-96tests 96 tests
EUR 1193
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Mitochondria Activity Assay Kit

KC310100 1 kit
EUR 398
Description: Premade ready to use kits will always come in handy. Get your experiment done right form the first try by using a validated kit with perfectly balanced reagents proportions and compatibility and by following a clear protocol.

GAPDH Activity Assay Kit

K680-100
EUR 256

MAT Activity Assay

IK00401 96 tests
EUR 844
Description: Methionine Adenosyltransferase (MAT) activity assay kit

GST Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

55R-1353 100 assays
EUR 706
Description: Assay Kit for detection of GST activity in the research laboratory

Beta Secretase Activity Assay Kit

55R-1383 100 assays
EUR 835
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Beta Secretase Activity in the research laboratory

Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Assay Kit

55R-1402 500 assays
EUR 740
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Alkaline Phosphatase in the research laboratory

Acid Phosphatase Activity Assay Kit

55R-1405 500 assays
EUR 438
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Acid Phosphatase in the research laboratory

Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Assay Kit

55R-1406 500 assays
EUR 438
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Alkaline Phosphatase in the research laboratory

Acid Phosphatase Activity Assay Kit

55R-1866 500 assays
EUR 484
Description: Assay Kit for detection of Acid Phosphatase in the research laboratory

Caspase-1 Activity Assay Kit

AR4003-100Assays 100 Assays
EUR 514

Caspase-1 Activity Assay Kit

AR4003-25Assays 25 Assays
EUR 236

Caspase-1 Activity Assay Kit

AR4003-50Assays 50 Assays
EUR 340

Caspase-2 Activity Assay Kit

AR4004-100Assays 100 Assays
EUR 514

Caspase-2 Activity Assay Kit

AR4004-25Assays 25 Assays
EUR 236

Caspase-2 Activity Assay Kit

AR4004-50Assays 50 Assays
EUR 340

Neprilysin Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K487-100
EUR 610

Chitotriosidase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K512-100
EUR 620

?-Glucuronidase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

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EUR 620

Methyltransferase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K521-100
EUR 566

Transglutaminase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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EUR 718

Sphingomyelinase Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K574-100
EUR 457

Fumarase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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EUR 653

Sphingomyelinase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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EUR 446

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EUR 653

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EUR 539

Acetylcholinesterase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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EUR 550

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EUR 452

DPP4 Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

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EUR 544

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EUR 387

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EUR 408

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EUR 523

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K945-100
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Cholinesterase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K975-100
EUR 642

Lipoxygenase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

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?-Xylosidase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

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EUR 588

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?-Glucosidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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EUR 512

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Uricase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

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EUR 512

Amylase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K711-100
EUR 408

Deubiquitinase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

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EUR 533

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K466-100
EUR 631

Aldolase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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EUR 664

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Trypsin Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2176-100 100 assays
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K2178-100 100 assays
EUR 557

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K263-100
EUR 490

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EUR 468

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Akt Activity Assay Kit, KinaseSTAR

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EUR 680

Chymotrypsin Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

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K2062-100 100 assays
EUR 627

HAT Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

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EUR 539

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EUR 479

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HDAC Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

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K2225-100 100 assays
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Aconitase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2226-100 100 assays
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Neuraminidase Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

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EUR 599

HDAC8 Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

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KinaseSTAR Akt Activity Assay Kit

K2080-40 40 assays
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PLTP Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K2087-100 100 assays
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CETP Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

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Proteasome Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K2096-100 100 assays
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GST Fluorometric Activity Assay Kit

K2105-100 100 assays
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GST Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

K2108-100 100 assays
EUR 529

DAG Kinase Activity Assay Kit

MET-5036 50 assays
EUR 450

Hexokinase (HK) Activity Assay Kit

MET-5087 100 assays
EUR 508

Beta Hexosaminidase Activity Assay Kit

MET-5095 100 assays
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OxiSelect ORAC Activity Assay Kit

STA-345 192 assays
EUR 577
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OxiSelect ORAC Activity Assay Kit

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EUR 2277
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OxiSelect HORAC Activity Assay Kit

STA-346 192 assays
EUR 577
Description: The HORAC assay is a powerful tool to measure the antioxidant capacity of biomolecules. Our OxiSelect HORAC Activity Assay measures the degradation of free hydroxyl radicals in less than 2 hours from a wide variety of sample types.

OxiSelect HORAC Activity Assay Kit

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EUR 2277
Description: The HORAC assay is a powerful tool to measure the antioxidant capacity of biomolecules. Our OxiSelect HORAC Activity Assay measures the degradation of free hydroxyl radicals in less than 2 hours from a wide variety of sample types.

Laccase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K2038-100 100 assays
EUR 500

CD38 Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K2042-100 100 assays
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Sialyltransferase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K2048-100 100 assays
EUR 601

MAT Activity Assay 3

IK00403 48 tests
EUR 503
Description: Methionine Adenosyltransferase (MAT) activity assay kit

Acetylcholinesterase Activity Assay Kit - 100 Assays

AR4001-unit unit
EUR 317

Glucose Isomerase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K491-100
EUR 490

Diamine Oxidase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K496-100
EUR 566

Oxalate Oxidase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

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EUR 479

Mitochondrial Complex III Activity Assay Kit

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Factor XIIIa Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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EUR 620

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Cyclooxygenase (COX) Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

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Glyoxalase I Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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EUR 490

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K595-100
EUR 642

Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K654-100
EUR 572

Asparaginase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K754-100
EUR 550

Glutathione Reductase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K761-200
EUR 512

Glutathione Peroxidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K762-100
EUR 512

Thioredoxin Reductase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K763-100
EUR 490

PAF Acetylhydrolase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K765-100
EUR 446

PicoProbe? Hexokinase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K769-100
EUR 637

Peroxidase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K772-100
EUR 387

Catalase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K773-100
EUR 419

Phosphoglucose Isomerase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K775-100
EUR 523

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EUR 784

MMP-3 Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

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EUR 512

Glucose Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K786-100
EUR 441

Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K787-100
EUR 550

Beta-Lactamase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K803-100
EUR 784

Rat Renin Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

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EUR 648

Adenosylhomocysteinase (AHCY) Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

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TEV Protease Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

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p53 Transcription Factor Activity Assay Kit

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Total Phosphodiesterase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K927-100
EUR 615

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EUR 533

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K935-100
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Factor XIa Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

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EUR 615

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K983-100
EUR 620

Alkaline Sphingomyelinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K987-100
EUR 588

5?-Nucleotidase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K992-100
EUR 664

Factor XIIa Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K994-100
EUR 626

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K997-100
EUR 620

Cystathionine ? Synthase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K998-100
EUR 620

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

K744-100
EUR 582

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Fluorometric Activity Assay Kit

K745-100
EUR 550

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Peroxidation Activity Assay Kit

K747-100
EUR 327

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K756-100
EUR 479

Enteropeptidase/Enterokinase Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K758-100
EUR 610

Enolase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K691-100
EUR 794

Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K726-500
EUR 550

Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K729-100
EUR 479

PicoProbe? Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Assay Kit

K730-500
EUR 582

Lipoprotein Lipase Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K721-100
EUR 539

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K731-100
EUR 582

?-N-Acetylglucosaminidase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K733-100
EUR 490

Lipase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit II

K723-100
EUR 539

Lipase Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit III

K724-100
EUR 533

Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K660-100
EUR 697

Oxalate Decarboxylase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K664-100
EUR 642

Isopropanol Dehydrogenase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K698-100
EUR 485

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Colorimetric Activity Assay Kit

K2168-100 100 assays
EUR 586

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Fluorometric Activity Assay Kit

K2169-100 100 assays
EUR 572

Glutathione Reductase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2173-200 200 assays
EUR 516

Glutathione Peroxidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2174-100 100 assays
EUR 516

Thioredoxin Reductase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2175-100 100 assays
EUR 502

Catalase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit

K2177-100 100 assays
EUR 418

Beta-Lactamase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2183-100 100 assays
EUR 877

Malate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2206-100 100 assays
EUR 599

Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2210-100 100 assays
EUR 738

Citrate Synthase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K318-100
EUR 539

Gluconokinase (GntK) Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K319-100
EUR 729

Pepsin/Pepsinogen Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K446-100
EUR 468

Cytidine Deaminase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K451-100
EUR 468

Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K443-100
EUR 566

DNAse I Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K429-100
EUR 697

Factor VIIIa Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K358-100
EUR 539

Cytochrome Oxidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2020-100 100 assays
EUR 557

Citrate Synthase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2029-100 100 assays
EUR 557

Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Activity Assay Kit

K2035-100 100 assays
EUR 432

HAT (H4) Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K336-100
EUR 501

HDAC2 Immunoprecipitation (IP) & Activity Assay Kit

K341-25
EUR 871

HDAC1 Immunoprecipitation (IP) & Activity Assay Kit

K342-25
EUR 865

HDAC3 Immunoprecipitation (IP) & Activity Assay Kit

K344-25
EUR 751

Adenosine Deaminase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K321-100
EUR 419

Adenosine Deaminase Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K328-100
EUR 457

InSitu HDAC Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K339-100
EUR 479

Cytochrome Oxidase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K287-100
EUR 539

Neutrophil Elastase Activity Assay kit (Fluorometric)

K383-100
EUR 419

Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K359-100
EUR 550

Beta-Secretase Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K360-100
EUR 620

Factor Xa Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K361-100
EUR 620

?-Secretase (BACE1) Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K388-100
EUR 604

Factor IXa Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric)

K364-100
EUR 490

Phosphoglycerate Kinase Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric)

K194-100
EUR 533

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Activity Assay Kit

K2228-500 500 assays
EUR 529

Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K2229-100 100 assays
EUR 502

Acid Phosphatase Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K421-500
EUR 349

Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Fluorometric Assay Kit

K422-500
EUR 349

Acid Phosphatase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K411-500
EUR 359

Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit

K412-500
EUR 539

Consequently, it may be concluded that new strategies of trendy drugs may be employed to extend the efficacy of pure pharmaceutical compounds used prior to now. In this regard, the current research analyzed the impact of curcumin towards numerous Candida infections utilizing the latest knowledge. It was discovered that making use of a mixture of drug formulation or the formulation of curcumin and its derivatives may be an efficient technique to beat the medication resistance in fungal infections, particularly candidiasis.